1) What are some non-pathological reasons for bradycardia? Pathological?
2) What are some non-pathological reasons for tachycardia? Pathological?
3) Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
a) ↓HR x ↑SV = ___ CO
b) ↑HR x ↑SV = ___ CO
c) ↑HR x ↓SV = ___ CO
HINT: Think about when the heart is beating WAAAY too fast. Does the heart have time to refill between each beat?
d)Normal CO is how many Liters/minute?
4) You already know many factors that affect Heart Rate. What are the 3 factors that affect SV?
5) Think about and describe some examples of how the 3 factors that determine SV would affect CO.
CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM (helps you understand some dysrhythmias)
How many bpm is the base rate for each node?
Sinoatrial (SA) node → Atrioventricular (AV) node → Bundle of His → Purkinje fibers
ADULT CARDIAC ISSUES (PRIMARILY ACQUIRED)
6) What’s the difference between Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis? What can be a resulting symptom or problem of each?
7) Cardiac Ischemia
Partial/temporary loss of blood flow
If it is severe enough to cause PAIN, it is
If it is severe enough to cause CELL DEATH, it is
8) Heart Failure
Left Failure: Where is the blood backing up? So what are the symptoms? What is causing the blood to back up? So what are some causes?
Right Failure: Where is the blood backing up? So what are the symptoms? What is causing the blood to back up? So what are some causes?
9) What are some treatments for Angina? MI? Heart Failure?
EXTRA CREDIT: Which chamber of the heart is the largest? Why do you think that is?